Substances that display a high degree of elasticity are termed "elastic." Types of elastic materials. [3] For rubber-like materials such as elastomers, the slope of the stress–strain curve increases with stress, meaning that rubbers progressively become more difficult to stretch, while for most metals, the gradient decreases at very high stresses, meaning that they progressively become easier to stretch. Epub 2005 Mar 25. Cauchy elastic material. These materials are a special case of simple elastic materials. Metamaterials are artificially created composite materials which exhibit unusual properties that are not found in nature. The elastic behavior of objects that undergo finite deformations has been described using a number of models, such as Cauchy elastic material models, Hypoelastic material models, and Hyperelastic material models. It is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. For example, a metal bar can be extended elastically up to 1% of its original length. Elastic behavior versus viscoelastic behavior. Elastic materials are of great importance to society since many of them are used to make clothes, tires, automotive spare parts, etc. For the economics measurement, see. In this paper, we review the recent advances which have taken place in the understanding and applications of acoustic/elastic metamaterials. Simple elastic materials are mathematical abstractions, and no real material fits this definition perfectly. Choose Isotropic to specify isotropic elastic properties, as described in Defining isotropic elasticity. Specify elastic material properties. ). To compute the modulus of elastic, simply divide the stress by the strain in the material. This means that the elastic values have a mirror symmetry with respect to two perpendicular axes, the so-called “Material axes”. Processing, structure, and properties of engineering ceramic materials. Theory of Elasticity, 3rd Edition, 1970: 1–172. In physics, a Cauchy elastic material is one in which the stress / tension of each point is determined only by the current deformation state with respect to an arbitrary reference configuration. The mechanical properties of materials are usually examined by means of stress–strain (or load–deformation) behavior. Though you may think of shiny leotards and biking shorts when you think of Lycra, the elastic fabric is present in many garments. The various moduli apply to different kinds of deformation. When an elastic material is deformed due to an external force, it experiences internal resistance to the deformation and restores it to its original state if the external force is no longer applied. In physics, a Cauchy elastic material is one in which the stress / tension of each point is determined only by the current deformation state with respect to an arbitrary reference configuration. The speed of sound within a material is a function of the properties of the material and is independent of the amplitude of the sound wave. The models of hyperelastic materials are regularly used to represent a behavior of great deformation in the materials. L 3 Different types of Orthotropic reinforcements. This means that stress alone is affected by the state of the deformations in a neighborhood close to the point in question. A material is said to be Cauchy-elastic if the Cauchy stress tensor σ is a function of the deformation gradient F alone: It is generally incorrect to state that Cauchy stress is a function of merely a strain tensor, as such a model lacks crucial information about material rotation needed to produce correct results for an anisotropic medium subjected to vertical extension in comparison to the same extension applied horizontally and then subjected to a 90-degree rotation; both these deformations have the same spatial strain tensors yet must produce different values of the Cauchy stress tensor. A geometry-dependent version of the idea[5] was first formulated by Robert Hooke in 1675 as a Latin anagram, "ceiiinosssttuv". The SI unit applied to elasticity is the pascal (Pa), which is used to measure the modulus of deformation and elastic limit. ˙ Elasticity is a physical property of a material whereby the material returns to its original shape after having been stretched out or altered by force. As a special case, this criterion includes a Cauchy elastic material, for which the current stress depends only on the current configuration rather than the history of past configurations. Elastic material properties in OnScale. These elastic materials are those that have a constitutive equation independent of finite stress measurements except in the linear case. For rubbers and other polymers, elasticity is caused by the stretching of polymer chains when forces are applied. Purely elastic materials do not dissipate energy (heat) when a load is applied, then removed; … Hyperelasticity provides a way of modeling the stress-tension behavior of such materials. depends only on the order in which the body has occupied its past configurations, but not on the time rate at which these past configurations were traversed. A model is hyperelastic if and only if it is possible to express the Cauchy stress tensor as a function of the deformation gradient via a relationship of the form, This formulation takes the energy potential (W) as a function of the deformation gradient ( The original version of Hooke's law involves a stiffness constant that depends on the initial size and shape of the object. The Cauchy stress How to choose an hyperelastic material (2017) Retrieved from simscale.com. Note that the second criterion requires only that the function Solid objects will deform when adequate loads are applied to them; if the material is elastic, the object will return to its initial shape and size after removal. This limit, called the elastic limit, is the maximum stress or force per unit area within a solid material that can arise before the onset of permanent deformation. If this third criterion is adopted, it follows that a hypoelastic material might admit nonconservative adiabatic loading paths that start and end with the same deformation gradient but do not start and end at the same internal energy. ˙ In engineering, the elasticity of a material is quantified by the elastic modulus such as the Young's modulus, bulk modulus or shear modulus which measure the amount of stress needed to achieve a unit of strain; a higher modulus indicates that the material is harder to deform. Last Post; Apr 27, 2010; Replies 2 Views 3K. t Retrieved from wikipedia.org. 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