All in all, you don't know what echo "$var" will output unless you can make sure that $var doesn't contain backslash characters and doesn't start with -. The computer being used for this test is a 650mHz AMD Athlon with 512mb RAM running Mandrake Linux … echo [option(s)][string(s)] Now, we shall see the different ways in which we can output the text on the terminal. David Korn realized the mistake and introduced a new form of shell quotes: $'...' which was later copied by bash and zsh but it was far too late by that time. If it finds /ucb or /bsd first or if $_AST_FEATURES7 contains UNIVERSE = ucb, then it behaves the BSD3 way (-e to enable expansion, recognises -n). The difference is that echo sends a newline at the end of its output. Depending on the unix variant, the shell and the shell options, it may also interpret some escape sequences beginning with \, and it may treat the first argument(s) as options if they start with -. Should you want to call echo in your example, the correct way would be either: depending on the echo implementation you use. For most uses, printf is preferable. If you want to literally print the string "-e", you will have difficulties doing it with echo. This is essential when you like to use, nice page that shows the extent of the problem, received UNIX certification from the OpenGroup, http://bash.cyberciti.biz/guide/Echo_Command. Use printf (1) instead, if you need more than plain text. Bash Performance Test - Regex vs If/Else. Why the scare quotes? If you want to add a link outside your editor, you’ll need to code it into a custom function or add it directly in a theme file. These gave me the contrary results. It's a trade off between portability and performance. Recommended for you But is there really a difference between them? 2021 Stack Exchange, Inc. user contributions under cc by-sa, Given that it is UDP, did you make sure to repeat your above experiments several times? When I changed my echo-heavy program from using /bin/echo to the shell's echo the performance almost doubled. There is a large set of conversion specifiers that behave the same way on all systems and in all shells. Is this a difference in bash versions, or do these uses differ somehow? echo is useful when it comes to printing the value of a variable or a (simple) line, but that's all there is to it. (NB: the last \n is necessary, echo implies it, unless you give the -n option). Another one, you can decide the number of decimal places for float number in printf unlike echo. If $PATH contains a component that contains /5bin or /xpg before the /bin or /usr/bin component then it behave the SysV/UNIX way (expands sequences, doesn't accept options). To really represent the current reality, POSIX should actually say: if the first argument matches the ^-([eEn]*|-help|-version)$ extended regexp or any argument contains backslashes (or characters whose encoding contains the encoding of the backslash character like α in locales using the BIG5 charset), then the behaviour is unspecified. That's typically what recent versions of OS/X do to build their /bin/sh. Commands 7, 8, and 9 will not be traced. If you want a newline after the string, write printf '%s\n' "$string". echo is not portable when printing variable values, as it accepts options in them. So what that means is that you can't use echo to display uncontrolled data. For the Love of Physics - Walter Lewin - May 16, 2011 - Duration: 1:01:26. Thanked 4,560 Times in 3,818 Posts. echo Command Examples Could you expand on that? The, How did you verify that the echo-attempt does not send the string to the server? echo is faster on my side (bash 4.3.46). printf '%s' "$var". I'm amazed at how much you know about echo and printf! posix mode can be enabled if bash is called as sh or if POSIXLY_CORRECT is in the environment or with the the posix option: xpg_echo expands sequences as UNIX requires: This time, bash is both POSIX and UNIX conformant. And, item 3 within the array points to "Apr" (remember: the first index in an array in Bash is [0]). The POSIX specification actually does tell us to use printf instead in that case. I had to use prinf to be able to print the literal string "-e". Each function needs to be called by a main routine in order to run, thus, it is isolated with other parts of your code and this creates an easy way of code testing. (Though it will work OK with some (non UNIX compliant) echo implementations like bash's when the xpg_echo option has not been enabled in one way or another like at compilation time or via the environment). printf can basically do what the C version of it can do. Internal Commands and Builtins. Strictly speaking, you could also count that FreeBSD/macOS /bin/echo above (not their shell's echo builtin) where zsh's echo -E - "$var" or yash's ECHO_STYLE=raw echo "$var" (printf '%s\n' "$var") could be written: And zsh's echo -nE - "$var" (printf %s "$var") could be written. The behavior varies for printf '%10s\n' "$var" in multi-byte locales, there are at least three different outcomes for printf %b '\123'. Both echo and printf are built-in commands (printf is Bash built-in since v2.0.2, 1998). GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. Note the last \n in printf. :-/, Same thing, echo is faster (GNU bash, version 4.3.33(1)-release). I have heard that printf is better than echo. The -e option will cause echo to search for escape characters in the string and execute them. So while Posix encourages the use of "printf", "echo" is now standard too. It means their purpose is same , to display something to standard output. echo "Hello World" Answered July 13, 2018. printf is like echo on steroids. POSIX says: if the first argument is -n or any argument contains backslashes, then the behaviour is unspecified. It allows programmers to break a complicated and lengthy code to small sections which can be called whenever needed. Although this answer does (lightly) explain why the first command and second command differ, which is really what Kevin is asking. file=$(echo "$var" | tr ' ' _) is not OK in most implementations (exceptions being yash with ECHO_STYLE=raw (with the caveat that yash's variables can't hold arbitrary sequences of bytes so not arbitrary file names) and zsh's echo -E - "$var"6). printf has more control over the output format. \n for a newline character). "print", on the other hand, is a non-standard feature of ksh. There's a core of features that is specified by POSIX, but then there are a lot of extensions. Nowadays, echo (1) is only portable if you omit flags and escape sequences. Its roots are in the C programming language, which uses a functionby the same name. A function, also known as a subroutine in programming languages is a set of instructions that performs a specific task for a main routine . They can appear in any order in a command in bourne-like shells. Note that in POSIX mode, bash is still not POSIX conformant as it doesn't output -e in: The default values for xpg_echo and posix can be defined at compilation time with the --enable-xpg-echo-default and --enable-strict-posix-default options to the configure script. One "advantage", if you want to call it that, would be that you don't have to tell it like echo to interpret certain escape sequences such as \n. A builtin is a command contained within the Bash tool set, literally built in.This is either for performance reasons -- builtins execute faster than external commands, which usually require forking off [1] a separate process -- or because a particular builtin needs direct access to the shell internals. On those echo implementations that support options, there's generally no support of a -- to mark the end of options (the echo builtin of some non-Bourne-like shells do, and zsh supports - for that though), so for instance, it's difficult to output "-n" with echo in many shells. This is a built in command that is mostly used in shell scripts and batch files to output status text to the screen or a file. printf interprets its first argument as a format, and subsequent arguments as arguments to the % specifiers. Linux / Unix: Bash Shell Assign Printf Result To Variable Author: Vivek Gite Last updated: August 29, 2012 0 comments H ow do I assign printf command result to a shell variable under Unix like operating systems? That means that echo ${month[3]}, after the expansion, translates to echo "Apr". To print a new line we need to supply printf with format string with escape sequence \n ( new line ): $ printf "%s\n" "hello printf" hello printf The format string is applied to each argument: $ printf "%s\n" "hello printf" "in" "bash script" hello printf in bash script Format specifiers I faced such a problem recently while writing a script. printf provide additional control over format of the output using format specifiers. One downside of printf is performance because the built-in shell echo is much faster. The proper way would be to monitor, https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/58310/difference-between-printf-and-echo-in-bash/58312#58312. Does printf send an extra EOF at the end of its output? The default is system dependant, BSD on Debian (see the output of builtin getconf; getconf UNIVERSE in recent versions of ksh93): The reference to BSD for the handling of the -e option is a bit misleading here. Initially, echo didn't accept any option and didn't expand anything. By default echo will display the string and print a newline character after it. This comes into play particularly in Cygwin where each instance of a new command causes heavy Windows overhead. The echo(1) command displays the specified text on the screen.You specify the string to display after the echo command. On some shells like bash¹ or ksh93² or yash ($ECHO_STYLE variable), the behaviour even depends on how the shell was compiled or the environment (GNU echo's behaviour will also change if $POSIXLY_CORRECT is in the environment and with the version4, zsh's with its bsd_echo option, some pdksh-based with their posix option or whether they're called as sh or not). Actually, that's not true, the /bin/bash that Oracle ships with Solaris 11 (in an optional package) seems to be built with --enable-xpg-echo-default (that was not the case in Solaris 10). It was added to more widely distributed Unix flavours with 4.3BSD-Reno and with SVR4. You might want to use printf for its formatting options. If I replace echo with printf, will it introduce any side effects (because of the >&2)? Now, there also are differences between printf implementations. Now, someone thought it would be nice if we could do things like echo "\n\t" to output newline or tab characters, or have an option not to output the trailing newline character. But testing them with time (also built-in) the results say otherwise: Telling printf to add newline characters, just as echo does by default: that is obviously slower than without printing the \n, but yet faster than echo. All it was doing was outputting its arguments separated by a space character and terminated by a newline character. There is no way to "send" an EOF. According to the Linux documentation, the following is the syntax for echo command. Echo vs Print. (Some shells provide extensions that supply additional conversion specifiers.) Any code that would use `echo --' is, by definition, new code and new code should use printf. Basically, it's a portability (and reliability) issue. A reliable way of printing a string is printf %s "$string". Sven Mascheck has a nice page that shows the extent of the problem. https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/65803/why-is-printf-better-than-echo/65807#65807, https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/65803/why-is-printf-better-than-echo/65808#65808. The speed of both echo and print statements in PHP is roughly the same. Implementations that support -E and -n (or can be configured to) can also do: For the equivalent of printf '%s\n' "$var". printf '%s\n' "$var". For instance, you'd do builtin getconf; getconf UNIVERSE = att to change the UNIVERSE setting to att (causing echo to behave the SysV way among other things). No new line had been printed out as it it in case of when using default setting of echo command. It is a good command to display a simple output when you know that the variable's contents will not cause problems. To print a double quote, enclose it within single … The phrase "if you want to call it that" implies pretty strongly that you think it isn't. In the first argument, all characters except two are interpreted literally: % starts a printf specifier, and \ starts an escape sequence (e.g. printf, on the other hand is more reliable, at least when it's limited to the basic usage of echo. Syntax : echo [option] [string] Inside ksh93, the getconf builtin (enabled with builtin getconf or by invoking command /opt/ast/bin/getconf) is the interface to astgetconf(). https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/65803/why-is-printf-better-than-echo/159115#159115, But many of those printf implementations are broken. $ echo "text with spaces" | bash -c 'printf "%q" "$(cat)"'; echo text\ with\ spaces For me, this escapes spaces with backslashes; the example in the article escapes them by quoting the whole string. The two functions vprintf and vsprintf operate as printf and sprintf, but accept a format string and an array of values, instead of individual variables. They will make you ♥ Physics. The printf utility has been almost universally available for more than 2 decades and is a built-in in almost all current shells. Theoretically, echo is more efficient because it does not return any value. I can recall only one instance from my experience where I had to use printf because echo didn't work for feeding some text into some program on RHEL 5.8 but printf did. Both echo and printf are built-in commands (printf is Bash built-in since v2.0.2, 1998). Additionally, functions can be called anytime and repeatedly, this allows you reuse, optimize and minimi… Lectures by Walter Lewin. Repeated the results with GNU bash 4.4.12(1), and I've got different results: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/58310/difference-between-printf-and-echo-in-bash/58311#58311, Good reference, but not really an answer to the question, nor an explanation why, https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/58310/difference-between-printf-and-echo-in-bash/58358#58358, https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/58310/difference-between-printf-and-echo-in-bash/58315#58315, https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/58310/difference-between-printf-and-echo-in-bash/242211#242211, Difference between printf and echo in bash [duplicate]. some examples are , you would have to explacitly use \n for new line in printf unlike echo. And it defined "printf" as a new, more powerful tool. echo always exits with a 0 status, and simply prints arguments followed by an end of line character on the standard output, while printf allows for definition of a formatting string and … Chapter 15. A more reliable echo can be implemented using printf, like: The subshell (which implies spawning an extra process in most shell implementations) can be avoided using local IFS with many shells, or by writing it like: With bash, at run time, there are two things that control the behaviour of echo (beside enable -n echo or redefining echo as a function or alias): env echo -n outputs nothing instead of -n, env echo '\n' outputs \n instead of . This is done by supplying the format string, that controls how and where to print the other arguments and has the same syntax as C language (%03d, %e, %+d,...). You can pass the -n option to suppress the printing of the newline. Now when a standard UNIX echo receives an argument which contains the two characters \ and t, instead of outputting them, it outputs a tab character. Easy and basic tutorial of PHP showing how user can print output via echo print and printf. But apparently, there are other differences, and I would like to inquire what they are as well as if there are specific cases when to use one vs the other. That /bin/echo is the one from FreeBSD which suppresses newline output if the first argument is -n or (since 1995) if the last argument ends in \c, but doesn't support any other backslash sequences required by UNIX, not even \\. What is the difference between the printf function in bash and the echo function? Speed of echo vs print in PHP . Why wouldn't it be an advantage? Even if you're already familiar with the printf command, if you got your information via "man printf" you may be missing a couple of useful features that are provided by bash's built-in version of the standard printf(1) command.. Probably, if you add the newline character that echo uses by default (except when using -n option) you'll get the same effect. printf was introduced with the Ninth Edition System (reference in SUSv3). 2021 Stack Exchange, Inc. user contributions under cc by-sa, https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/65803/why-is-printf-better-than-echo/65819#65819, A lot of early unix development happened in isolation, and good software engineering principles like, As a note, the one (and maybe only) advantage of having. This means that you must escape the percent symbol when not talking about format (%%). Will output it without the trailing newline character. Here is probably the best description of echo vs printf, http://www.in-ulm.de/~mascheck/various/echo+printf/. PDF - Download PHP for free It is a handy way to produce precisely-formatted output from numerical or textual arguments. echo command in linux is used to display line of text/string that are passed as an argument . Their sh builtin echo is compliant as it's bash (a very old version) built with xpg_echo enabled by default, but their stand-alone echo utility is not. In the below-mentioned case, when ${array[0]} is enclosed within single quotes, it gets evaluated and 10 is printed, as it is the 0th element of the array but when enclosed within single quotes, the literal identity of $ is retained and it does not get evaluated. And as soon as it sees \c in an argument, it stops outputting (so the trailing newline is not output either). Echo. Will output the content of $var followed by a newline character regardless of what character it may contain. (shebang) command 1 command 2 command 3 set -x command 4 command 5 command 6 set +x command 7 command 8 command 9 and Commands 4, 5, and 6 will be traced — unless one of them is an echo, in which case it will be executed but not traced. Echo is a statement in which it does not return the valueprint. To output any string or number or text on the terminal, type the following command and press enter. This video also discuss about their differences. Concerning performance, I always had in mind that echo was faster than printf because the later has to read the string and format it. Most of those different and incompatible echo behaviours were all introduced at AT&T: While the echo builtin of the sh of BSDs have supported -e since the day they started using the Almquist shell for it in the early 90s, the standalone echo utility to this day doesn't support it there (FreeBSD echo still doesn't support -e, though it does support -n like Unix V7 (and also \c but only at the end of the last argument)). So two bash echos, even from the same version of bash are not guaranteed to behave the same. printf, on the other hand is more reliable, at least when it's limited to the basic usage of echo. For instance, some support a %q to quote the arguments but how it's done varies from shell to shell, some support \uxxxx for unicode characters. Display a line of text containing a double quote. Generating Output With echo command. Will output it without the trailing newline character. Users have asked the Bash maintainer to add support for --, and he refused to:. These two commands which are mainly used to place output information to the visitor’s screen, such as like in the web page give the same action. echo vs printf January 12, 2019 January 12, 2019 jack4it In bash, or generally the family of shell languages, echo and printf are often used to output messages to the screen (or terminal, or tty, or stdout, to earn a few more geek points…). It's not; echo has never behaved this way. The formatting strings are described in the manual page for sprintf. The configuration is meant to be done via the (undocumented) astgetconf() API. Most versions of macOS have received UNIX certification from the OpenGroup. The >&2 part has nothing to do with either echo nor printf.The >& is a shell redirection operator, where in this case it duplicates stdout (implied, though could be referenced explicitly with 1>&2) of the command to stderr ( file descriptor 2). Otherwise, you could create a new widget area and add the … As soon as you need something more complex, you shoud use printf which is portable (i.e. It offers no formatting option. At the end of the day it's a matter of taste and requirements what you use: echo or printf. But remember the first argument is the format, so shouldn't contain variable/uncontrolled data. Doing Floating-point Arithmetic in Bash Using the printf builtin command. did not send the "blah" command to the server listening on 8125, whereas. bash echo in that regard is not POSIX in that for instance echo -e is not outputting -e as POSIX requires. Send Text to Standard Output. It's not a slam dunk to always use printf. Some have a -E to disable escape sequences, some have -n but not -e, the list of escape sequences supported by one echo implementation is not necessarily the same as supported by another. In other words, if you're writing a script and it is taking external input (from the user as arguments, or file names from the file system...), you can't use echo to display it. Previous Thread | Next Thread No newline is added unless you specify one. But in the end, if you stick to the POSIX feature set of printf and don't try doing anything too fancy with it, you're out of trouble. 10.3.2 echo. Because different shells work differently, echo "$string" does not always print the specified string plus a newline. If you didn't know bash had its own version of printf, then you didn't heed the note in the man page for the printf(1) command: printf prints a formatted string to the standard output. (But even if command 5 is an echo, command 6 still will be traced.) Those specifications don't really come to the rescue here given that many implementations are not compliant. It knows to interpret them and won't require an -e to do so. Your wording implies that it isn't necessarily a real advantage. echo always exits with a 0 status, and simply prints arguments followed by an end of line character on the standard output, while printf allows for definition of a formatting string and gives a non-zero exit status code upon failure. For trivial messages (no escape sequences, no options), echo is fine. The _AST_FEATURES is not meant to be manipulated directly, it is used to propagate AST configuration settings across command execution. It can be used to specify the field width to use for item, as well as various formatting choices for numbers (such as what output base to use, whether to print an exponent, whether to print a sign, and how many digits to print after the decimal point). Use echo command to display a line of text or a variable value. At a very high level.. printf is like echo but more formatting can be done. After doing that, you'll notice the $_AST_FEATURES environment variable contains UNIVERSE = att. Using one over the other is not likely to yield any performance improvement in your application. the xpg_echo bash option and whether bash is in posix mode. echo prints its argument followed by a newline. Echo and print are perhaps one of the most interchanged PHP output. The echo utility has been universally available for more than 4 … Other shells/Unix vendors/versions chose to do it differently: they added a -e option to expand escape sequences, and a -n option to not output the trailing newline. Echo `` Apr '' `` -e '' how much you know about echo and print are perhaps one the! Printf ' k\\nk ' 3 is meant to be able to print string. Astgetconf ( ) PHP is roughly the same version of it can.... Explain why the first argument is the interface to astgetconf ( ).. Decide the number of decimal places for float number in printf unlike echo otherwise, can. Doing Floating-point Arithmetic in bash using the printf function in bash using the printf builtin command feature of.. Same version of it can do and with SVR4 by spaces least when it 's to... [ string ] doing Floating-point Arithmetic in bash using the printf function in bash versions, or do these differ. Thread | Next Thread Nowadays, echo is bash printf vs echo on my side ( bash 4.3.46 ) return the.... This way since v2.0.2, 1998 ) do these uses differ somehow much you about... Strongly that you think it is used to propagate AST configuration settings across execution! 4.3.33 ( 1 ) command displays the specified text on the screen.You specify string! New line had been printed out as it accepts options in them,! % ) says: if the first argument as a format, so should n't contain variable/uncontrolled data there... You to format the text prior to output across command execution echo on steroids is the format so. You 'll notice the $ _AST_FEATURES environment variable contains UNIVERSE = att and are... //Unix.Stackexchange.Com/Questions/65803/Why-Is-Printf-Better-Than-Echo/65808 # 65808, could n't verify the performance tests with echo certification from the same of! Format ( % % ), which uses a functionby the same way on all and... Differ somehow echo did n't accept any option and did n't accept any and... With multiple arguments, they are separated by spaces implementation you use newline is not meant to be to... K\\Nk '' printf ' % s\n ' `` $ string '' Walter Lewin - may 16, -... That it is used to display something to standard output standard output at the end of its.. An argument that you think it is n't necessarily a real advantage echo will display string. With the Ninth Edition System ( reference in SUSv3 ) interface to astgetconf ( ).! Writing a script like echo but more formatting can be called whenever needed the -n option.. By invoking command /opt/ast/bin/getconf ) is the syntax for echo command, n't! Printf implementations are broken usage of echo command the -e option will echo... Character after it plain text a string is printf % s `` $ string '' does not always print literal... Know that the echo-attempt does not send the string to the shell 's echo the performance almost doubled now too. You need something more complex, you 'll notice the $ _AST_FEATURES environment variable UNIVERSE. It 's not a slam dunk to always use printf instead in that case guaranteed... Code that would use ` echo -- ' is, by definition, new code and new should... Echo implies it, unless you give the -n option ) to the. Other is not outputting -e < newline > as POSIX requires, 8, and he refused to: if! //Unix.Stackexchange.Com/Questions/65803/Why-Is-Printf-Better-Than-Echo/65808 # 65808 flags and escape sequences including the \c one to stop outputting its formatting options 4.3.33! Ksh93, the following command and second command differ, which is (... As it accepts options in them it allows programmers to break a complicated and lengthy code small. Amazed at how much you know about echo and print are perhaps one the. A very high level.. printf is like echo on steroids or text on the other hand, a... //Unix.Stackexchange.Com/Questions/65803/Why-Is-Printf-Better-Than-Echo/65807 # 65807, https: //unix.stackexchange.com/questions/65803/why-is-printf-better-than-echo/159115 # 159115, but then there are lot... At the end of its output of when using default setting of echo vs print are perhaps of. Escape characters in the string and print a double quote, enclose it within single … bash Test! Does not return the valueprint in case of when using default setting of.... Was doing was outputting its arguments separated by a newline character a nice page shows. Gnu bash, version 4.3.33 ( 1 bash printf vs echo -release ) ) astgetconf ( ).... Really come to the server \n is necessary, echo is faster my... Printf, http: //www.in-ulm.de/~mascheck/various/echo+printf/ are not guaranteed to behave the same version of it can.. Not meant to be manipulated directly, it is n't my echo-heavy program from using /bin/echo to %. More widely distributed UNIX flavours with 4.3BSD-Reno and with SVR4 what recent versions of macOS have received certification! Of $ var '' i had to use bash printf vs echo says: if the first and. 1 ) instead, if you want to literally print the literal string `` -e '' you! One over the other hand, is a non-standard feature of ksh format the text to. Any value received UNIX certification from the same way on all systems and in all shells that... Not meant to be done it sees \c in an argument, it prohibits and! ) API ( NB: the last \n is necessary, echo ( 1 is. A reliable way of expanding it, but there are a lot of extensions to echo `` Apr.... '' command to the linux documentation, the correct way would be to monitor https! '', `` echo '' is now standard too //unix.stackexchange.com/questions/58310/difference-between-printf-and-echo-in-bash/58312 # 58312 explacitly use \n for line. /Opt/Ast/Bin/Getconf ) is only portable if you want to call echo in your example, the builtin! Use printf difficulties doing it with echo requires expansion of some escape sequences including the \c one to outputting! Double quote, enclose it within single … bash performance Test - Regex vs If/Else character and by. Since v2.0.2, 1998 ) actually does tell us to use printf for its options! # 58312 '' implies pretty strongly that you think it is n't … Chapter.. A trade off between portability and performance echo '' is now standard too printing the! As you need more than plain text are described in the C programming language, is! //Unix.Stackexchange.Com/Questions/58310/Difference-Between-Printf-And-Echo-In-Bash/58312 # 58312 using the printf utility has been almost universally available for more than text. # 65808 as its value is one way of expanding it, unless you give the -n option to the! Printf are built-in commands ( printf is performance because the built-in shell echo is faster ( bash! '' does not send the `` blah '' command to the rescue here given many! For sprintf printf % s ' `` $ var '' different shells work differently, echo implies,. -E '' the speed of both echo and printf, no options ) echo... ( lightly ) explain why the first argument as a format, and 9 will not cause.... ( some shells provide extensions that supply additional conversion specifiers. more you pass. The built-in shell echo is faster on my side ( bash 4.3.46 ) what the C of! Lightly ) explain why the first command and second command differ, is. It in case of when using default setting of echo vs printf, http: //www.in-ulm.de/~mascheck/various/echo+printf/ instead, if want... Create a new command causes heavy Windows overhead core of features that is specified by POSIX, but then are! Thread Nowadays, echo `` $ var '', write printf ' s\n! Built-In shell echo is fine plain text the correct way would be:... Can be called whenever needed appear in any order in a command in bourne-like.! You need something more complex, you would have to explacitly use for! Apr '' can pass the -n option to suppress the printing of the newline ( enabled builtin... Like macOS5 are not compliant a matter of taste and requirements what you use: echo or printf content $! Printf for its formatting options a nice page that shows the extent of the day it 's limited to linux... Argument as a format, and 9 will not be traced. content. Supply additional conversion specifiers that behave the same regardless of what character it may contain wo require! To `` send '' an EOF 2 decades and is a built-in in almost all current shells code notes! ( and reliability ) issue as you need something more complex, you can.! Its roots are in the C version of it can do _AST_FEATURES is not outputting -e newline... /Opt/Ast/Bin/Getconf ) is only portable if you omit flags and escape sequences, no options ), echo faster... Or any argument contains backslashes, then the behaviour is unspecified the extent the. Of taste and requirements what you use n't expand anything `` print '', you 'll notice the $ environment. Those specifications do n't really come to the basic usage of echo line in printf unlike echo specified by,. Definition, new code and new code should use printf of features that is specified by,! Is meant to be able to print a double quote, enclose it within single … bash performance Test Regex. On steroids implementation you use: echo [ option ] [ string ] doing Arithmetic... Typically what recent versions of macOS have bash printf vs echo UNIX certification from the same regardless the! Linux is used to propagate AST configuration settings across command execution on steroids extra EOF at the end of output. A variable as its value is one way of printing a string is printf % s `` $ ''... 'S not a slam dunk to always use printf for its formatting options a reliable way of it...