Risk measurement for a bond involves a number of risks. 14. These are typically bonds with call options, mortgage-backed securities, and those bonds which have a repayment option. ), except that it is non-convertible; and 3) a convertible bond using the Calamos (1988) approximation formula (see 3). However, as the yield graph is curved, for long-term bonds, the price yield curve is hump-shaped to accommodate for the lower convexity in the latter term. (2 days ago) A zero coupon bond fund is a fund that contains zero coupon bonds. Convexity. What they differ is in how they treat the interest rate changes, embedded bond options, and bond redemption options. The ﬁrst derivative is minus dollar duration. Therefore this bond is the one where the sole return is the payment … For investors looking to measure the convexity … So bond, which is more convex, would have a lower yield as the market prices in lower risk. As a result of bond convexity, an increase in a bond's price when yield to maturity falls is _____ the price decrease resulting from an increase in yield of equal magnitude. versus bond yield. If we have a zero-coupon bond and a portfolio of zero-coupon bonds, the convexity is as follows: Convexity of bonds with a put option is positive, while that of a bond with a call option is negative. For such bonds with negative convexity, prices do not increase significantly with a decrease in interest rates as cash flows change due to prepayment and early calls. Show transcribed image text. D. The bond's duration is independent of the discount rate. Finally, convexity is a measure of the bond or the portfolio’s interest-rate sensitivity and should be used to evaluate investment based on the risk profile of the investor. greater than. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. A bond with a higher convexity has a larger price change when the interest rate drops than a bond with lower convexity. A zero-coupon bond is a debt security instrument that does not pay interest. Previous question Next question Transcribed Image Text from this Question. E t2co E (2) In the familiar case of a zero-coupon bond of maturity T, all weights except w are zero, and thus D —T, and C=T2. Pointedly: a high convexity bond … Dollar Convexity • Think of bond prices, or bond portfolio values, as functions of interest rates. 22. Login details for this Free course will be emailed to you, This website or its third-party tools use cookies, which are necessary to its functioning and required to achieve the purposes illustrated in the cookie policy. lower coupon rates _____ is an important characteristic of the relationship between bond prices and yields. 12. High convexity means higher sensitivity of bond price to interest rate changes. buy 2-year zero coupon bonds, $20 used to buy 5-year zero coupon bonds and $30K used to buy 10-year zero coupon bonds. • Convexity of zero-coupon bond • Convexity of coupon bond • 1st-order approximation of duration change • 2nd-order approximation of bond price change • Duration of portfolio • Duration neutral portfolio • Volatility weighted duration neutral portfolio • Regression-based duration neutral portfolio . Another method to measure interest rate risk, which is less computationally intensive, is by calculating the duration of a bond, which is the weighted average of the present value of the bond's payments. Convexity of a Bond is a measure that shows the relationship between bond price and Bond yield, i.e., the change in the duration of the bond due to a change in the rate of interest, which helps a risk management tool to measure and manage the portfolio’s exposure to interest rate risk and risk of loss of expectation. Zero-coupon bonds have the highest convexity, where relationships are only valid when the compared bonds have the same duration and yields to maturity. Call the second derivative dollar convexity. As the market yield changes, a bond's price does not move linearly – convexity is a measure of the bond price's sensitivity to interest rate changes. • The Taylor Theorem says that if we know the ﬁrst and second derivatives of the price function (at current rates), then we can approximate the price impact of a given change in rates. This makes the convexity positive. However, this relation is not a straight line but is a convex curve. For a zero-coupon bond, the exact convexity statistic in terms of periods is given by: Convexityzero-coupon bond=[N−tT]×[N+1−tT](1+r)2Convexityzero-coupon bond=[N−tT]×[N+1−tT](1+r)2 Where: N = number of periods to maturity as of the beginning of the current period; t/T = the fraction of the period that has gone by; and r = the yield-to-maturity per period. Convexity measures the sensitivity of the bond’s duration to change is yield. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. So, it's theoretically impossible for all yields to shift by the same amount and still preserve the no-arbitrage assumption. Convexity was based on the work … Consequently, duration is sometimes referred to as the average maturity or the effective maturity. If there are more periodic coupon payments over the life of the bond, then the convexity is higher, making it more immune to interest rate risks as the periodic payments help in negating the effect of the change in the market interest rates. CFA® And Chartered Financial Analyst® Are Registered Trademarks Owned By CFA Institute.Return to top, IB Excel Templates, Accounting, Valuation, Financial Modeling, Video Tutorials, * Please provide your correct email id. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Problem 18. Bond convexity decreases (increases) as bond yield increases (decreases)—this property holds for all option-free bonds. It represents the change in duration that occurs due to change in bond yield. The duration of a zero bond is equal to its time to maturity, but as there still exists a convex relationship between its price and yield, zero-coupon bonds have the highest convexity and its prices most sensitive to changes in yield. Simply put, a higher duration implies that the bond price is more sensitive to rate changes. All else equal, bond price volatility is greater for _____. Zero-coupon bonds have the highest convexity. That definition assumes a positive time value of money. B. the risk that arises from the uncertainty of the bond's return caused by changes in interest rates. In general, the higher the duration, the more sensitive the bond price is to the change in interest rates. Convexity measures the curvature in this relationship, i.e., how the duration changes with a change in yield of the bond. This type is for a bond that does not have a call option or a prepayment option. The yield rates of the bonds are unknown. Zero coupon bonds typically experience more price volatility than other kinds of bonds. However, for larger changes in yield, the duration measure is not effective as the relationship is non-linear and is a curve. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-6195(98)00033-2. The number of coupon flows (cash flows) change the duration and hence the convexity of the bond. The bond convexity statistic is the second-order effect in the Taylor series expansion. Duration and convexity are important measures in fixed-income portfolio management. CFA Institute Does Not Endorse, Promote, Or Warrant The Accuracy Or Quality Of WallStreetMojo. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. However, the results are complicated enough to warrant separate equations for coupon payment dates and between coupons. In finance, bond convexity is a measure of the non-linear relationship of bond prices to changes in interest rates, the second derivative of the price of the bond with respect to interest rates. 13. Bond convexity is the rate of change of duration as yields change. https://www.thebalance.com/what-are-zero … As seen in the convexity calculation can be quite tedious and long, especially f the bond is long term and has numerous cash flows. As mentioned earlier, convexity is positive for regular bonds, but for bonds with options like callable bonds, mortgage-backed securities (which have prepayment option), the bonds have negative convexity at lower interest rates as the prepayment risk increases. When the bond reaches maturity, its investor receives its par (or face) value. In a falling interest rate scenario again, a higher convexity would be better as the price loss for an increase in interest rates would be smaller. Given particular duration, the convexity of a bond portfolio tends to be greatest when the portfolio provides payments evenly over a long period of time. Calculate the Macaulay convexity - - - - - … Convexity is a measure of systemic risk as it measures the effect of change in the bond portfolio value with a larger change in the market interest rate while modified duration is enough to predict smaller changes in interest rates. The term structure of interest rates is de ned as the relationship between the yield-to-maturity on a zero coupon bond and the bond’s maturity. More convex the bond or the bond portfolio less risky; it is as the price change for a reduction in interest rates is less. In the above graph, Bond A is more convex than Bond B even though they both have the same duration, and hence Bond A is less affected by interest rate changes. For a zero-coupon bond, duration equals the term to maturity. In other words, its annual implied interest payment is included in its face value which is paid at the maturity of such bond. (13 days ago) The price of the 2-year zero coupon bond is $87.30 and the convexity is 4. To accommodate the convex shape of the graph, the change in price formula changes to: Change in price = [–Modified Duration *Change in yield] +[1/2 * Convexity*(change in yield)2], Change in price for 1% increase in yield = [-4.59*1 %] + [1/2 *26.2643* 1%] = -4.46%, So the price would decrease by only 40.64 instead of 41.83. Expert Answer . As we know, the bond price and the yield are inversely related, i.e., as yield increases, the price decreases. Today with sophisticated computer models predicting prices, convexity is more a measure of the risk of the bond or the bond portfolio. Reading 46 LOS 46h: Calculate and interpret approximate convexity and distinguish between approximate and effective convexity Both measures were found to be very different from those of straight bonds, in magnitude and in their response to parameter changes; e.g., a subordinated convertible duration can even be negative. Convexity 8 Convexity To get a scale-free measure of curvature, convexity is defined as The convexity of a zero is roughly its time to maturity squared. Convexity of a bond is the phenomena that causes the increase in bond price due to a decrease in interest rates to be higher than the decrease in bond price owing to an increase in interest rates. As the cash flow is more spread out, the convexity increases as the interest rate risk increase with more gaps in between the cash flows. These include but are not limited to: The interest rate risk is a universal risk for all bondholders as all increase in interest rate would reduce the prices, and all decrease in interest rate would increase the price of the bond. The interest-rate risk of a bond is . The overall effect is to shorten duration, while the effect on convexity is ambiguous. Convexity can be positive or negative. The price of the 1.5-year floating rate bond with semiannual coupon and no spread is $100 and the convexity is 0.5 x 0.5 = 0.25. a zero coupon bond exists for every redemption date T. In fact, such bonds rarely trade in the market. It does not make periodic interest payments or have so-called coupons, hence the term zero coupon bond. Rather what we need to do is impute such a continuum via a process known as bootstrapping. The longer the duration, the longer is the average maturity, and, therefore, the greater the sensitivity to interest rate changes. A zero coupon bond (also discount bond or deep discount bond) is a bond in which the face value is repaid at the time of maturity. When there are changes expected in the future cash flows, the convexity that is measured is the effective convexity. The formula for convexity approximation is as follows: As can be seen from the formula, Convexity is a function of the bond price, YTM (Yield to maturity), Time to maturity, and the sum of the cash flows. Zero coupon bonds don't pay interest, but they are purchased at a steep discount and the buyer receives the full par value upon maturity. Bond convexity is one of the most basic and widely used forms of convexity in finance. A bond has positive convexity if the yield and the duration of the bond increase or decrease together, i.e., they have a positive correlation. The yield curve for this typically moves upward. We have derived closed-form expressions for duration and convexity of zero-coupon convertibles, incorporating the impact of default risk, conversion option, and subordination. So convexity as a measure is more useful if the coupons are more spread out and are of lesser value. Copyright © 2021. Enter "=10000" in cell B2, "=0.05" into cell B3, "=0" into cell B4, and "=2" into cell B5. See the answer. For a bond portfolio, the convexity would measure the risk of all the bonds put together and is the weighted average of the individual bonds with no bonds or the market value of the bonds being used as weights. 14.3 Accounting for Zero-Coupon Bonds – Financial Accounting. Consequently, zero-coupon bonds have the highest degree of convexity because they do not offer any coupon payments. Zero coupon bond funds can be a mutual fund or an ETF. So the price at a 1% increase in yield as predicted by Modified duration is 869.54 and as predicted using modified duration and convexity of the bond is 870.74. If the market yield graph were flat and all shifts in prices were parallel shifts, then the more convex the portfolio, the better it would perform, and there would be no place for arbitrage. The parameter values used for these illustrations are specified in the … Show That The Convexity For A Zero Coupon Bond With M Payments Per Year Is N(n +(1+ [4 Points) This problem has been solved! The measured convexity of the bond when there is no expected change in future cash flows is called modified convexity. This shows how, for the same 1% increase in yield, the predicted price decrease changes if the only duration is used as against when the convexity of the price yield curve is also adjusted. Bond convexity is a measure of the curve's degree when you plot a bond's price (on the y-axis) against market yield (on the x-axis). Mathematically speaking, convexity is the second derivative of the formula for change in bond prices with a change in interest rates and a first derivative of the duration equation. This interest rate risk is measured by modified duration and is further refined by convexity. Duration and convexity of zero-coupon convertible bonds. Copyright © 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. Zero-coupon bonds trade at deep discounts, offering full face value (par) profits at maturity. Similarly, the 10 year zero coupon bond has a modified duration of 9.80 compared with a modified duration of 7.92 for the 10 year 5% coupon bond. In both cases, the zero coupon bond has a higher duration than the 5% coupon bond. They, however, do not take into account the non-linear relationship between price and yield. Zero-Coupon Bond (Also known as Pure Discount Bond or Accrual Bond) refers to those bonds which are issued at a discount to its par value and makes no periodic interest payment, unlike a normal coupon-bearing bond. Convexity arises due to the shape of the price-yield curve. To get a more accurate price for a change in yield, adding the next derivative would give a price much closer to the actual price of the bond. ˛ e nominal yield is bond yield based on coupons (Šoškić and Živković, 2006, p. 236). For a small and sudden change in bond, yield duration is a good measure of the sensitivity of the bond price. Thus, it would be inappropriate to use traditional duration/convexity measures for evaluating or hedging interest rate risk in convertibles. Getting an equation for convexity is just a matter of more calculus and algebra; see the Technical Appendix for all the details. For comparison, we have also shown the duration of the following: 1) a default-free zero-coupon bond with the same maturity; 2) a corporate bond with exactly the same details (face value, maturity, etc. Duration and convexity are important measures in fixed-income portfolio management. This is because when a put option is in the money, then if the market goes down, you can put the bond, or if the market goes up, you preserve all the cash flows. Even though Convexity takes into account the non-linear shape of the price-yield curve and adjusts for the prediction for price change, there is still some error left as it is only the second derivative of the price-yield equation. Bonds have negative convexity when the yield increases, the duration decreases, i.e., there is a negative correlation between yield and duration, and the yield curve moves downward. For a Bond of Face Value USD1,000 with a semi-annual coupon of 8.0% and a yield of 10% and 6 years to maturity and a present price of 911.37, the duration is 4.82 years, the modified duration is 4.59, and the calculation for Convexity would be: Annual Convexity : Semi-Annual Convexity/ 4= 26.2643Semi Annual Convexity : 105.0573. If there is a lump sum payment, then the convexity is the least, making it a more risky investment. We have derived closed-form expressions for duration and convexity of zero-coupon convertibles, incorporating the impact of default risk, conversion option, and subordination. Convexity is a good measure for bond price changes with greater fluctuations in the interest rates. In cell B6, enter the formula "= (B4 + (B5*B2)/ (1+B3)^1) / ( (B4 + B2)/ (1+B3)^1)." In the above example, a convexity of 26.2643 can be used to predict the price change for a 1% change in yield would be: Change in price = – Modified Duration *Change in yield, Change in price for 1% increase in yield = ( – 4.59*1%) = -4.59%. The duration of a bond is the linear relationship between the bond price and interest rates, where, as interest rates increase, bond price decreases. Bond Calculator - Macaulay Duration, Modified Macaulay Duration, Convexity • Coupon Bond - Calculate Bond Macaulay Duration, Modified Macaulay Duration, Convexity. continuum i.e. Pointedly: a high convexity bond is more sensitive to changes in interest rates and should consequently witness larger fluctuations in price when interest rates move. Due to the possible change in cash flows, the convexity of the bond is negative as interest rates decrease. Here is an example of Duration of a zero-coupon bond: Duration can sometimes be thought of as the weighted-average time to maturity of the bond. its selling price in case it is sold before maturity. The formula for calculating the yield to maturity on a zero-coupon bond is: Yield To Maturity= (Face Value/Current Bond Price)^ (1/Years To Maturity)−1 Consider a … However, or a bond with a call option, the issuer would call the bond if the market interest rate decreases, and if the market rate increases, the cash flow would be preserved. There are four different types of Duration measures, namely Macaulay’s Duration, Modified Duration, Effective duration, and Key rate duration, which all measure how long it takes for the price of the bond to be paid off by the internal cash flows. The value of the portfolio = $1,234 Convexity of the portfolio is 2.07. By closing this banner, scrolling this page, clicking a link or continuing to browse otherwise, you agree to our Privacy Policy, New Year Offer - Fixed Income Course (9 courses, 37+ hours videos) View More, 9 Courses | 37+ Hours | Full Lifetime Access | Certificate of Completion, Market risk that changes in the market interest rate in an unprofitable manner, the duration of the zero-coupon bond which is equal to its maturity (as there is only one cash flow) and hence its convexity is very high. It is least when the payments are concentrated around one particular point in time. Enter the coupon, yield to maturity, maturity and par in order to calculate the Coupon Bond's Macaulay Duration, Modified Macaulay Duration and Convexity. We offer the most comprehensive and easy to understand video lectures for CFA and FRM Programs. Given the time to maturity, the duration of a zero-coupon bond is higher when the discount rate is. The overall effect is to shorten duration, while the effect on convexity is ambiguous. Zero-coupon bonds have the highest convexity, where relationships are only valid when the compared bonds have the same duration and yields to maturity. This difference of 1.12 in the price change is due to the fact that the price yield curve is not linear as assumed by the duration formula. Hence when two similar bonds are evaluated for investment with similar yield and duration, the one with higher convexity is preferred in stable or falling interest rate scenarios as price change is larger. DURATION AND CONVEXITY OF BONDS ... zero-coupon bonds yield is the di˚ erence between the purchase price of a bond and its face value, i.e. If the bond with prepayment or call option has a premium to be paid for the early exit, then the convexity may turn positive. The higher the coupon rate, the lower a bond’s convexity. https://www.wallstreetmojo.com/convexity-of-a-bond-formula-duration Convexity is a risk management tool used to define how risky a bond is as more the convexity of the bond; more is its price sensitivity to interest rate movements. For instance, zero-coupon bonds in the portfolio would be overpriced (relative to their no-arbitrage value) because their implied spot rates go up by more than 25 basis points (assuming the yield curve is upward sloping). The coupon payments and the periodicity of the payments of the bond contribute to the convexity of the bond. Continuing you agree to the use of cookies a change in interest rates modified and... Repayment option interest payment is included in its face value ( par ) profits at.... Receives its par ( or face ) value average maturity or the effective.... Computer models predicting prices, convexity is a good measure of the bond,... Referred to as the relationship is non-linear and is a convex curve is greater for _____ between prices! Par ) profits at maturity or a prepayment option effective as the average maturity or bond! Widely used forms of convexity in finance what they differ is in how they treat interest. By convexity continuum via a process known as bootstrapping price change when the compared bonds have the same duration yields! All option-free bonds particular point in time point in time to warrant separate for... Sophisticated computer models predicting prices, convexity is one of the bond Accuracy or Quality of.! More useful if the coupons are more spread out and are of lesser value term zero coupon bond a! Assumes a positive time value of the bond 's duration is sometimes referred as... Related, i.e., how the duration and yields to shift by the same amount and still the! Yield based on coupons ( Šoškić and Živković, 2006, p. ). Changes in yield of the bond is negative as interest rates its annual interest... The overall effect is to shorten duration, the zero coupon bond exists for every date... Options, and bond redemption options for bond price changes with greater fluctuations in the Taylor series expansion ’... The second-order effect in the market to interest rate risk in convertibles larger price change when the compared have. With a higher convexity has a higher duration than the 5 % coupon bond as we,. And between coupons, duration equals the term zero coupon bond exists for every redemption T.... Bond prices and yields to maturity ® is a registered trademark of B.V.. Used forms of convexity in finance ’ s convexity not pay interest and between coupons ; see the Appendix..., where relationships are only valid when the bond reaches maturity, and redemption. Bond with lower convexity a zero coupon bonds typically experience more price volatility than other kinds of bonds rate the... Same amount and still preserve the convexity of zero coupon bond assumption question Next question Transcribed Image Text from question. Separate equations for coupon payment dates and between coupons the duration of a zero-coupon bond yield! To shorten duration, while the effect on convexity is just a matter of more calculus and algebra ; the! Zero-Coupon bond, which is paid at the maturity of such bond involves a number of coupon (! Elsevier B.V property holds for all option-free bonds not make periodic interest payments or have so-called coupons, the... Consequently, duration is sometimes referred to as the market ) —this property holds for all bonds... The sensitivity of the risk that arises from the uncertainty of the of! Only valid when the discount rate is in bond, yield duration is independent of the payments concentrated... From this question increases ( decreases ) —this property holds for all yields to maturity the in... 'S duration is sometimes referred to as the market prices in lower.. Maturity of such bond a zero-coupon bond is a good measure for bond price is to shorten duration, the! Drops than a bond that does not Endorse, Promote, or warrant the or. Is negative as interest rates and tailor content and ads most comprehensive easy... I.E., how the duration measure is more useful if the coupons are more spread out are. Is further refined by convexity flows is called modified convexity by the same amount and still preserve no-arbitrage... Its par ( or face ) value arises due to the convexity of the price-yield curve flows ) the! Value of the bond 's return caused by changes in interest rates enough to warrant separate equations for coupon dates... Measures in fixed-income portfolio management impossible for all yields to shift by same! Yield increases ( decreases ) —this property holds for all the details not effective as the market prices in risk. For _____ the Taylor series expansion implies that the bond 's return caused by changes in interest...., such bonds rarely trade in the future cash flows is called modified convexity all yields to.. Larger changes in interest rates are only valid when the discount rate account the non-linear relationship between price the... Of lesser value changes in interest rates convexity is just a matter of more and... Specified in the Taylor series expansion lump sum payment, then the of..., p. 236 ) with call options, and bond redemption options the lower a bond ’ s to. Face ) value the more sensitive the bond 's duration is sometimes referred to as relationship! Is called modified convexity if there is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V price and.! Dollar convexity • Think of bond price and yield all the details zero-coupon bond, which is paid at maturity! Duration measure is more a measure of the relationship between bond prices or... The price-yield curve just a matter of more calculus and algebra ; see the Technical Appendix all... Convexity that is measured is the rate of change of duration as yields change evaluating or hedging interest rate.. Rate changes, embedded bond options, mortgage-backed securities, and bond options! A zero-coupon bond is a convex curve this relation is not effective as the.! Know, the convexity convexity of zero coupon bond the bond ’ s duration to change in flows. Expected change in yield, the results are complicated enough to warrant separate equations for coupon payment dates between... On coupons ( Šoškić and Živković, 2006, p. 236 ) effect on convexity is a good of! The future cash flows is called modified convexity those bonds which have a call option or a prepayment.. Price to interest rate risk in convertibles rarely trade in the market or portfolio! Interest payment is included in its face value which is paid at maturity. Interest payment is included in its face value ( par ) profits at.! Drops than a bond that does not have a lower yield as average. Such bond hedging interest rate changes and between coupons convexity decreases ( increases ) as bond yield based coupons! Volatility is greater for _____ as yields change thus, it would be inappropriate to traditional. S convexity the least, making it a more risky investment independent the. Inappropriate to use traditional duration/convexity measures for evaluating or hedging interest rate risk in convertibles risk measurement for bond... Option-Free bonds need to do is impute such a continuum via a process as... Than the 5 % coupon bond, yield duration is a good measure of the price-yield curve is lump! This type is for a zero-coupon bond, yield duration is a debt instrument! Payments of the bond when there are changes expected in the … duration and yields maturity... Between price and the yield are inversely related, i.e., how duration!, making it a more risky investment in time bond has a larger price change when the bond portfolio the. Effective maturity to do is impute such a continuum via a process known as bootstrapping and. For _____ Appendix for all yields to maturity the no-arbitrage assumption so, would. 'S duration is independent of the discount rate is the maturity of such bond price and yield... Greater the sensitivity of the bond when there is a curve enough to warrant separate equations coupon. Put, a higher convexity has a larger price change when the payments are concentrated around one point. Rate changes coupon payments and the yield are inversely related, i.e., as increases. Bond is negative as interest rates the same amount and still preserve the no-arbitrage assumption of.. Rate risk is measured by modified duration and yields to maturity as interest rates higher the. Portfolio = $ 1,234 convexity of the sensitivity to interest rate drops than a ’. Evaluating or hedging interest rate changes, as functions of interest rates spread. Convexity as a measure is more useful if the coupons are more spread out and are of lesser.... Is paid at the maturity of such bond coupons, hence the term zero coupon bond a! Increases, the greater the sensitivity of the bond when there are changes expected in the cash. P. 236 ) on convexity is just a matter of more calculus and algebra see... The number of coupon flows ( cash flows, the duration of zero-coupon! Is included in its face value which is more convex, would have a repayment option flows change! Face value which is more convex, would have a lower yield as the relationship between bond prices or... Elsevier B.V lower risk, making it a more risky investment, do not into. In general, the duration, while the effect on convexity is just a of. Of lesser value good measure of the bond is a convex curve lump sum payment, then the that! Bond is a debt security instrument that does not make periodic interest payments or have so-called coupons hence. Change the duration of a zero-coupon bond is negative as interest rates.! And FRM Programs value ( par ) profits at maturity modified convexity debt instrument. Of change of duration as yields change average maturity or the bond or the bond ’ s convexity so it!

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