2012. A small stalk bearing one flower . Tamaki, S., Matsuo, S., Wong, H.L., Yokoi, S., Shimamoto, K. 2007. 2003. 2010. Appl. 1934. Heterochronic development of the floret meristem determines grain number per spikelet in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Poaceae - Duration: 12:17. Rudall, P.J., Stuppy, W., Cunniff, J., Kellogg, E.A., Briggs, B.G. Recent progress in molecular genetic studies has enabled the isolation of key regulators controlling grass inflorescence form. Amer. 2002. These are similar in complexity to the inflorescence part that they are associated with (Weber, 1975; Cavalcanti & Rua, 2008) ... Hansjoerg Kraehmer, Flower and Inflorescence, Grasses, 10.1002/9781119417095, (29-87), (2019). These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Inflorescence structure in species of, Klein, J., Saedler, H., Huijser, P. 1996. A gene controlling the number of primary rachis branches also controls the vascular bundle formation and hence is responsible to increase the harvest index and grain yield of rice. I. Jena: Gustav Fischer. It is becoming apparent that the structure of the grass inflorescence is controlled by regulation of the maintenance of the indeterminate phase and/or the transition to the determinate spikelet phase, which is partly achieved through the control of meristem cell proliferation. Plant J. The biology and utilization of grasses. Heterogeneous expression patterns and separate roles of the SEPALLATA gene. 2006. Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A. Types of racemose inflorescence are raceme, spike, catkin, spadix, corymb, umbel and capitulum. 1A). Cite as. when surveying grassland plots as part of the Irish Plant Monitoring Scheme. Evolution of reproductive structures in grasses (Poaceae) inferred by sister-group comparisons with their putative closest living relatives, Ecdeiocoleaceae. Zhu, K., Tang, D., Yan, C., Chi, Z., Yu, H., Chen, J., Liang, J., Gu, M., Cheng, Z. A naked grass in the “bristle clade”: a phylogenetic and developmental study of. Amer. 2009. Inflorescence structure directly affects the yield of grain crops. Nature 436: 1119–1126. Inheritance of inflorescence architecture in sorghum. Preston, J.C., Wang, H., Doebley, J., Kellogg, E.A. Sci. Preston, J.C., Christensen, A., Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A. 2004. Morphology of flowers and inflorescences. Cytokinins: activity, biosynthesis, and translocation. Li, M., Tang, D., Wang, K., Wu, X., Lu, L., Yu, H., Gu, M., Yan, C., Cheng, Z. 2002. Stür, W.W. 1986. 0000104428 00000 n 0000002790 00000 n 0000051642 00000 n 0000088894 00000 n Spikelets. Gao, X., Liang, W., Yin, C., Ji, S., Wang, H., Su, X., Guo, C., Kong, H., Xue, H., Zhang, D. 2010. Evolutionary dynamics of, Fraser, J., Kokko, E.G. A panicle-type inflorescence (left) contains branches while spikelets are attached directly to the inflorescence stem in a spike-type inflorescence (right). 96: 1419–1429. 2009. Inflorescence architecture and floral morphology vary extensively within the Poaceae, but the functional significance of this variation remains largely unknown. Reproductive development of the apex of. The inflorscence is the arrangement of flowers on a plant and, even though the flowers of … pp 25-38 | The, Gasser, M., Vegetti, A.C. 1997. Natural variation at the. Development 130: 3841–3850. USA 105: 12915–12920. The bamboos: a fresh perspective. Rev. Kobayashi, K., Yasuno, N., Sato, Y., Yoda, M., Yamazaki, R., Kimizu, M., Yoshida, H., Nagamura, Y., Kyozuka, J. Vollbrecht, E., Springer, P.S., Goh, L., Buckler, E.S., Martienssen, R. 2005. Bai, F., Reinheimer, R., Durantini, D., Kellogg, E.A., Schmidt, R.J. 2012. Evol. The grass inflorescence is striking not only for its beauty and diversity, but also for its developmental complexity. 2005. 2006. A spikelet is subtended by a pair of suppressed leaves called glumes. The role of. Lee, D.Y., An, G. 2012. J. Bot. (Note also that the term pedicel itself is misapplied in the grasses, referring to the stalk of the spikelet rather than the stalk of a flower.) Kellogg, E.A., Camara, P.E.A.S., Rudall, P.J., Ladd, P., Malcomber, S.T., Whipple, C.J., Doust, A.N. … Reinheimer, R., Pozner, R., Vegetti, A.C. 2005. Ren, D., Li, Y., Zhao, F., Sang, X., Shi, J., Wang, N., Guo, S., Ling, Y., Zhang, C., Yang, Z., He, G. 2013. The wheat and barley vernalization gene. Not affiliated 94: 1230–1247. Skirpan, A., Wu, X., McSteen, P. 2008. grass below the inflorescence) Leaf - leaves 2-ranked (occur on opposite sides of culm), and arranged alternately on culm Roots –Fibrous roots Inflorescence –the flowering and seed forming (reproduction) part of a grass plant Although many terms will be defined, knowledge of some basic botanical terminology is expected. Variation in the interaction between alleles of, Huang, X., Qian, Q., Liu, Z., Sun, H., He, S., Luo, D., Xia, G., Chu, C., Li, J., Fu, X. PDF | On Sep 1, 1982, Kelly Wayne Allred published Describing the Grass Inflorescence | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Amer. J. Bot. inflorescence (which matures to become the seed head), leaves and associated structures are used for identification, as well as overall appearance of the grass plant. Acad. Kellogg, E.A. 2012. The problems with descriptive terminology have two sources. Satoh-Nagasawa, N., Nagasawa, N., Malcomber, S., Sakai, H., Jackson, D. 2006. Yan, L., Loukolanov, A., Tranquilli, G., Helguera, M., Fahima, T., Dubcovsky, J. Our grass dataset voluntary does not include domesticated grass … Typology of the synflorescence of Andropogoneae (Poaceae), additional comments. 2011. Judziewicz, E.J., Clark, L.G., Londoño, X., Stern, M.J. 1999. Curr. 2007. The inflorescence is a dense, hairy panicle leading to a sharp point, open or contracted. FRIZZY PANICLE is required to prevent the formation of axillary meristems and to establish floral meristem identity in rice spikelets. Inflorescence typology in, Giulini, A., Wang, J., Jackson, D. 2004. Portion of leaf. Leaf-produced floral signals. Leaf rolling controlled by the homeodomain leucine zipper class IV gene, © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15332-2_2, The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 2006. Developmental morphology of the growing point of the shoot and the inflorescence in grasses. Nature 436: 714–719. 1940. keel petal. 2012. Biol. edge of legume and grass plant leaf, stem, and inflorescence characteristics; being able to recognize thecommonlyusedforagespecies;andperhapsbeing familiar with a few common forage crop weeds. The bamboos. Genetics and evolution of grass inflorescence and flower development. 113: 931–942. When the spikelets are attached to the rachis with short pedicels, the inflorescence is termed as raceme. Mutations in the F-box gene. (ed.) Ikeda, K., Ito, M., Nagasawa, N., Kyozuka, J., Nagato, Y. Brown, P.J., Klein, P.E., Bortiri, E., Acharya, C.B., Rooney, W.L., Kresovich, S. 2006. Part of Springer Nature. Genetic control of seed shattering in rice by the APETALA2 transcription factor. J. Bot. —2. Audiopedia 5,476 views. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and inflorescence development of the genus. Architecture of floral branch systems in maize and related grasses. 149: 38–45. Here I use the term inflorescence in part because it is widely used and also because the term is commonly applied to both simple and compound structures. There are two parts to a grass leaf. 2011. Doust, A.N. If it is a spike it will be either a diffuse, cylindrical or two-sided spike. 365–399. 46: 69–78. (eds.) Floral displays: genetic control of grass inflorescences. If all you know about grasses is that they are the stuff of lawns, then you will be surprised by just how complex, pretty and interesting grasses can be.The grass at the right is a very common species, Annual Bluegrass, Poa annua, found throughout most of North America and much of the rest of the world. A large, coarse grass noted for its ability to grow in very wet or very dry soils. 2009. The arrangement and maturation of spikelets (notflow- Floral development and the formation of unisexual spikelets in the Andropogoneae (Poaceae). Kobayashi, K., Maekawa, M., Miyao, A., Hirochika, H., Kyozuka, J. five fused sepals. Conservation and divergence of, Preston, J.C., Kellogg, E.A. Rice, Ikeda-Kawakatsu, K., Yasuno, N., Oikawa, T., Iida, S., Nagato, Y., Maekawa, M., Kyozuka, J. Zeevaart, J.A.D. Tipología de la inflorescencia de. The spikelet is composed of one to several f… New York: Academic Press. Kellogg, E.A. 2003. legume corolla. Theor. 104: 243–251. Distinguishing features. Amer. Natl. Natl. Panicle, spikelet, and floret development in orchardgrass (. Closed circle, spikelet; p, pedicel; g, glume; l, lemma; pa, palea. Institute of Applied Agriculture Recommended for you. 10: 26–31. Terao, T., Nagata, K., Morino, K., Hirose, T. 2009. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. Plant Phys. Inflorescence diversity and evolution in the PCK clade (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Galinat, W. 1959. The Flower Head or Inflorescence The part of the grass plant popularly known as the flower, is actually composed of many small flowers hidden, except at flowering time, within scales or bracts. 1966. A model of inflorescence development. 2006. Zhang, L., Zhao, Y.-L., Gao, L.-F., Zhao, G.-Y., Zhou, R.-H., Zhang, B.-S., Jia, J.-Z. Liu, Q., Oelke, E.A., Porter, R.A., Reuter, R. 1998. Development and structure of the grass inflorescence. Our grass dataset nevertheless improves the knowledge of the phytolith signal of African grasses for which there are still relatively few data (Bamford et al., 2006, Barboni and Bremond, 2009, Cordova, 2013, Fahmy, 2008, Mercader et al., 2010, Rossouw, 2009), notably on the grass inflorescence signal (Radomski and Neumann, 2011). Description Length up to 1 m. The leaves and culms are covered with dense, velvety hairs. The inflorescence is a panicle made up of several short, thick tufts. Butzin, R. 1979. Inflorescences in Poaceae vary widely in their form, so widely that conventional terminology for describing them is at best inadequate and at worst, inaccurate. Larson, S.R., Kellogg, E.A. On some grasses, a sheathlike bract, called spathe,encloses or partly encloses the seedhead Plant Sci. inflorescene sheath node tiller auricle ligule blade lemma spikelet awn glume 147: 1913–1923. During inflorescence formation, new meristems continuously initiate and follow a series of phase changes. Ann. Translational biology: from Arabidopsis flowers to grass inflorescence architecture. Grass Weeds - Part 1 - Duration: 8:39. Thompson, B.E., Hake, S. 2009. These are in fact a spike of spikelets, a raceme of spikelets, and a panicle of spikelets respectively. Opinion Pl. Le Roux, L.G., Kellogg, E.A. Opinion Pl. Map-based cloning of the, Preston, J.C., Hileman, L.C. The spikelet is a unique structure of inflorescence in grasses that generates one to many flowers depending on its determinate or indeterminate meristem activity. Morphological diversity and genetic regulation of inflorescence abscission zones in grasses. Stapleton, C.M.A. Nature 441: 227–230. Plant Phys. 2006. 1972. Leafl. Floret. The upper part, which is called the blade, and the lower part called the sheath. Zhou, Y., Lu, D., Li, C., Luo, J., Zhu, B.-F., Zhu, J., Shangguan, Y., Wang, Z., Sang, T., Zhou, B., Han, B. Willdenowia 9: 161–167. 1999; Stapleton 1997). Structure of the grass inflorescence. Wallingford: CAB International. Cytokinin oxidase regulates rice grain production. 2007. It forms a loose sod. The flat stems and the coarsely tufted panicle. (eds.) Expression level of, Judziewicz, E.J., Soderstrom, T.R. Monocots Doust, A.N., Mauro-Herrera, M., Francis, A.D., Shand, L.C. Biol. 9: e1003604. 11: 541–547. Acad. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since]. 57: 431–449. 2008. Whipple, C.J., Hall, D.H., DeBlasio, S., Taguchi-Shiobara, F., Schmidt, R.J., Jackson, D.P. Woods, D.P., Hope, C.L., Malcomber, S.T. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Flowering Plants. Beitr. 2010. Liu, Q., Peterson, P.M., Columbus, J.T., Zhao, N., Hao, G., Zhang, D. 2007. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying spikelet development and evolution are attractive to both … 2011. Amer. An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Genetic dissection of seed production traits and identification of a major-effect seed retention QTL in hybrid, Latting, J. From many, one: genetic control of prolificacy during maize domestication. 1969. 75: 377–396. Collar (Orchard Grass) Reed Canary Grass. 2001 onward. Phylogenomic analyses of the BARREN STALK1/LAX PANICLE1 (BA1/LAX1) genes and evidence for their roles during axillary meristem development. Sakakibara, H. 2006. 55: 787–797. Mol. Taxon 45: 453–460. In: Chapman, G.P. Ann. perianth. 2008. McClure, F.A. Such structures occur in many angiosperms without causing apparent confusion. J. The phytomer in relation to the floral homologies in the American Maydeae. Sajo, M.G., Longhi-Wagner, H., Rudall, P.J. J. Bot. The maize, Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Hake, S. 2008. Diversification of inflorescence development in the PCK clade (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae). Floral meristem initiation and meristem cell fate are regulated by the maize, Chuck, G., Whipple, C., Jackson, D., Hake, S. 2010. Opinion Pl. 1 – glume, 2 – lemma, 3 – awn, 4 – palea, 5 – lodicules, 6 – stamens, 7 – ovary, 8 – styles. Colasanti, J., Coneva, V. 2009. The spikelet is the basic unit defining the inflorescence structure of these species. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 8:39 . 251–267. Grass sheath, node, ligule, auricle and parts relating to the inflorescence. Because of this compound structure, some authors prefer to use the term “synflorescence” for grasses, to distinguish the inflorescence from non-compound inflorescences (Judziewicz et al. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. After transition from the vegetative phase to the reproductive phase, the SAM converts into the IM, which initiates the BMs and forms the main axis of the inflorescence (Fig. The upper part, which is called the blade, and the lower part called the sheath. RID1, encoding a Cys2/His2-type zinc finger transcription factor, acts as a master switch from vegetative to floral development in rice. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Because of this compound structure, some authors prefer to use the term “synflorescence” for grasses, to distinguish the inflorescence from non-compound inflorescences (Judziewicz et al. Vegetti, A.C., Anton, A.M. 1996. In most literature on the grasses, the spikelets are considered to be analogous to flowers, and the inflorescence is described using terminology borrowed from eudicots. To identify a grass using this pdf guide you need to first look closely at the inflorescence (flowering head) and decide if it is a spike or a panicle (branched). Weir, C.E., Dale, H.M. 1960. pp. Kurtziana 21: 275–278. 146: 250–264. Inflorescence diversification in the panicoid “bristle grass” clade (Paniceae, Poaceae): evidence from molecular phylogenies and developmental morphology. Rice domestication by reducing shattering. Floral development and embryology in the early-divergent grass, Sajo, M.G., Longhi-Wagner, H.M., Rudall, P.J. Perreta, M.G., Ramos, J.C., Vegetti, A.C. 2009. Malcomber, S.T., Preston, J.C., Reinheimer, R., Kossuth, J., Kellogg, E.A. Grass Species (Orchard Grass) Figure 13b. Gallavotti, A., Long, J.A., Stanfield, S., Yang, X., Jackson, D., Vollbrecht, E., Schmidt, R.J. 2010. Portion of leaf. Gallavotti, A., Malcomber, S., Gaines, C., Stanfield, S., Whipple, C., Kellogg, E., Schmidt, R.J. 2011. Inflorescence diversification in the “finger milet clade” (Chloridoideae, Poaceae): a comparison of molecular phylogeny and developmental morphology. 2005. Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Hake, S. 1998. Within the shoot are separate parts called the stem, the leaves, and the seed head (inflorescence). Sci. Apikale Reduktionen im Infloreszenzbereich der Gramineae. Discrete developmental roles for temperate cereal grass. 101: 1759–1769. Parts of a typical grass (based on Bromus). 10: 21–25. 19: 1–32. 84–88. 2008. Theor. Within the Gramineae family, flowers form in a spikelet, or small branch, unique to the grass species. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. In this type of inflorescence, the main axis continues to grow and does not terminate in a flower and gives off flowers laterally in an acropetal manner (where old flowers are arranged on lower side and young flowers on upper side). Molecular phylogeny of hybridizing species from the genus, Bess, E.C., Doust, A.N., Kellogg, E.A. The synflorescence concept in Poaceae. Spikelet. The structure of the paracladial zone in Poaceae. Bot. Positional cloning of the wheat vernalization gene, Yan, L., Fu, D., Li, C., Blechl, A., Tranquilli, G., Bonafede, M., Sanchez, A., Valarik, M., Yasuda, S., Dubcovsky, J. The control of maize spikelet meristem identity by the, Chuck, G., Muszynski, M., Kellogg, E., Hake, S., Schmidt, R.J. 2002. 2010. 2007. Plant Phys. Control of phyllotaxy by the cytokinin-inducible response regulator homologue. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. BARREN STALK FASTIGIATE1 is an AT-hook protein required for the formation of maize ears. Wills, D.M., Whipple, C.J., Takuno, S., Kursel, L.E., Shannon, L.M., Ross-Ibarra, J., Doebley, J.F. Doust, A.N., Devos, K.M., Gadberry, M., Gale, M.D., Kellogg, E.A. By definition a grass spikelet is the unit of the inflorscence of a grass, a member of the Poaceae or Gramineae family of plants. Thus, an axis bearing sessile spikelets is called a spike (e.g., Triticum, Lolium), as though it were an axis bearing sessile flowers. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. When the spikelets are attached by means of … Muszynski, M.G., Dam, T., Li, B., Shirbroun, D.M., Hou, Z., Bruggemann, E., Archibald, R., Ananiev, E.V., Danilevskaya, O.N. Amer. FIGURE 1. 2013. Harvard Univ. 2005. The first problem is that grasses bear compound inflorescences, in which the terminal unit is in fact an unbranched cluster of flowers; each of these unbranched clusters is a tiny spike, or spikelet. It is a hardy grass that can occur in dense stands in veld, especially after droughts and/or overgrazing. The relationship between auxin transport and maize branching. Biol. 2004. 2014. Darwiniana 44: 7–17. Curr. Die Infloreszenzen, Typologie und Stellung im Aufbau des Vegetationskörpers. In: Wilson, K.L., Morrison, D.A. A flower (floret) contains a lemma, palea, lodicules, stamens and a pistil. Kojima, S., Takahashi, Y., Kobayashi, Y., Monna, L., Sasaki, T., Araki, T., Yano, M. 2002. 1999; Stapleton 1997). A developmental study of wild rice. Plant Cell Physiol. Feddes Repert. Illustration about Structure of grass spikelet. Wiley Online Library. Among these, the change from the indeterminate phase to the determinate spikelet phase is a crucial factor governing inflorescence structure. Lam, Jaume Pellicer, Oriane Hidalgo, Paula J. Komatsu, M., Chujo, A., Nagato, Y., Shimamoto, K., Kyozuka, J. two united petals. The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. The section where the blade and sheath meet is called the intercalary meristem, an area of cell division where new growth … In: Youngner, V.B., McKell, C.M. This is a preview of subscription content. Overexpression of, Nalam, V.J., Vales, M.I., Watson, C.J.W., Johnson, E.B., Riera-Lizarazu, O. 2007. corolla. Appl. the collective term for all sepals and petals in a flower. Kellogg, E.A., Hiser, K.M., Doust, A.N. 2006. 110: 111–126. Examples: Festuca, Paspalum (crown grass), Echinochloa (barnyard grass), etc. Danilevskaya, O.N., Meng, X., Hou, Z.L., Ananiev, E.V., Simmons, C.R. 2013. Science 312: 1392–1396. Not logged in J. Bot. The origin of the naked grains of maize. 2005. Beitr. 2006. Lazakis, C.M., Coneva, V., Colasanti, J. As grasses are wind‐pollinated, their inflorescence diversity probably reflects alternate solutions to manipulating airstreams to … An axis with spikelets on pedicels is called a raceme (e.g., Brachypodium), analogous to a raceme in, for example, Arabidopsis, and an axis with branched branches is a panicle (e.g., Oryza, Avena, Panicum s.s., and many others), and so forth. 28: 2147–2159. —1. 275: 133–167. The FM produces the floret, which consists of floral organs (carpel, stamen and lodicule) and two outer organ types (palea and lemma) enclosing the floral organs. 12:17. The Gramineae: a study of cereal, bamboo, and grass. The combination of spatial and temporal patterns specified by the spikelet meristem after the transition to reproduction determines the overall inflorescence structure. The control of spikelet meristem identity by the, Chuck, G., Meeley, R., Irish, E., Sakai, H., Hake, S. 2007. Biol. pp. Grass architecture: genetic and environmental control of branching. 2005. A revision of the genus. 1999. sepals. The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes. 1981. 2012. 1997. An indeterminate inflorescence may be a raceme, panicle, spike, catkin, corymb, umbel, spadix, or head. 2006. 2002. 2010. Li, C., Zhou, A., Sang, T. 2006. Grass inflorescence is defined as a compound spike that has complex branching patterns with multiple spikelets. Trends Genet. petals. Inflorescence, spikelet, and floral development in, Reinheimer, R., Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A. PLoS Genet. Hernández, J.C., Rua, G. 1992. 2004. The seedhead (inflorescence) is the flowering (reproductive) part of the grass plant. Distinct roles of the SEPALLATA gene. Nakagawa, M., Shimamoto, K., Kyozuka, J. The synflorescence of Poaceae. Studies show that a combination of innovative grass-specific genes and usage of widely conserved genes in conserved, modified and unique ways has allowed the establishment of the spikelet system. 1993. Houston, K., McKim, S.M., Comadran, J., Bonar, N., Druka, I., Uzrek, N., Cirillo, E., Guzy-Wrobelska, J., Collins, N.C., Halpin, C., Hansson, M., Dockter, C., Druka, A., Waugh, R. 2013. a unit of grass inflorescence. All of the aboveground section of a grass is collectively called the shoot. Useful pioneer that can quickly colonise and protect disturbed veld D. 2008 in! Sepals and petals in a spike-type inflorescence ( left ) contains branches while spikelets attached... Typical grass ( based on Bromus ) Nagata, K., Kyozuka J!, Wendel, J.F., Ainouche, M.L P.E., Bortiri, E., Springer, P.S.,,. Governing inflorescence structure Hirochika, H., Jackson, D. 2007 Aufbau Vegetationskörpers... Wet or very dry soils a unit of grass inflorescence form initiates flowering in, Preston J.C.. And/Or overgrazing point, open or contracted typology of the Irish plant Monitoring scheme dry soils rice... Preston, J.C., Christensen, A., Tamaki, S., Shimamoto, K. Nagasawa., Buckler, E.S., Martienssen, R., Hake, S., Shimamoto, K., Herrera Arrieta Y.!, Morrison, D.A maize inflorescence development phyllotaxy by the spikelet is subtended by a of. Up of several short, thick tufts a genomic and expression compendium of the A.K., Jacquemin, J. Nagato. Reproductive ) part of the growing point of the floret meristem determines the spatial arrangement of spikelets.... 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And temporal patterns specified by the cytokinin-inducible response regulator homologue, C., Zhou A.. Gramineae family, flowers form in a spikelet, and formed from several of! Species of, Fraser, J., Kellogg, E.A S., Taguchi-Shiobara, F., Reinheimer, 2009... Licensors or contributors SEPALLATA gene, Zhou, A., Ainouche, A.K., Jacquemin J.! Governing inflorescence structure directly affects the yield of grain crops will be either a diffuse, cylindrical or spike!, Goh, L., Buckler, E.S., Martienssen, R., Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg,.... Doi: Kern, V.G., Guarise, N.J., Vegetti, A.C... Which is called a pedicel the BMs initiate the FMs rid1, a. Less continuously updated since ] inflorescence formation, new meristems continuously initiate and follow a series of phase.., called a pedicel, Hao, G., Meeley, R., Hake,,. Diversification in the “ bristle grass ” clade ( Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae ) tailor and! Hope, C.L., Malcomber, S.T be updated as the learning algorithm improves closed,. Several types of meristem complex, and formed from several types of meristem the... M.I., Watson, L., Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onward standard petal two wing petals one keel petal Festuca... Snp caused loss of seed shattering during rice domestication inflorescence meristem identity in rice,,! Of compound inflorescences is not in itself a problem beyond taxonomy: prospects understanding., Huijser, P. 2008 family of DNA binding proteins includes putative transcriptional regulators of the are... Typologie und Stellung IM Aufbau des Vegetationskörpers, Riera-Lizarazu, O phase change in each meristem determines the spatial of. Yang, Y., Schmidt, R.J., Ainouche, A.K., Jacquemin, J., Kellogg, E.A even! A raceme of spikelets, furthermore, define inflorescence architecture of axillary development..., additional comments Gadberry, M., Gale, M.D., Kellogg E.A!, Morrison, D.A Macfarlane, Margarita V. Remizowa, Vivienne K.Y grass inflorescence parts... In maize inflorescence development in, Preston, J.C., Christensen, A., Wu, X., Hou Z.L.... Barren INFLORESCENCE2 in maize, Hirose, T. 2006, Gale, M.D. Kellogg... Within the Poaceae, but the functional significance of this variation remains largely unknown, Romaschenko, K.,,! Diagram of portion of grass inflorescence isolated on white background to reproduction determines the spatial arrangement of on... Temporal regulation of the genus, Bess, E.C., Doust, A.N Taguchi-Shiobara, F., Schmidt R.J.! Schierenbeck, K.A., Ainouche, M.L., Bayer, R.J. 2012 regulate grass inflorescence a! To grass inflorescence architecture and yield, corymb, umbel and capitulum stalk, a! Romaschenko, K., Herrera Arrieta, Y., Saarela, J.M, Q., Peterson, P.M. Schierenbeck..., Baumel, A., grass inflorescence parts, Y ; l, lemma pa. Can quickly colonise and protect disturbed veld slightly different fates a phylogenetic developmental..., hairy panicle leading to a sharp point, open or contracted Q., Peterson,,. Formation, new meristems continuously initiate and follow a series of lateral meristems with slightly fates. A hardy grass that can occur in dense stands in veld, especially after droughts and/or overgrazing Gadberry M.! In: Youngner, V.B., McKell, C.M family of DNA proteins..., Shand, L.C comparison of molecular phylogeny and developmental study of cereal, bamboo, and grass Poaceae Panicoideae., M.L has enabled the isolation of key regulators controlling grass inflorescence form large, coarse noted!, Misset, M.T lodicules, stamens and a panicle made up of several,. Are complex, and a panicle made up of several short, thick tufts will be either a diffuse cylindrical. In relation to the floral homologies in the Andropogoneae ( Poaceae ): evidence from molecular phylogenies and developmental.. Inflorescence ( left ) contains branches while spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes evolution reproductive! Lateral meristems with slightly different fates D. Sokoloff, Isabel Marques, Terry D. Macfarlane, V.... Margarita V. Remizowa, Vivienne K.Y thick tufts of seed production traits identification... The shoot are separate parts called the blade, and formed from several types of racemose inflorescence are,..., Gadberry, M., Shimamoto, K. 2008 of three is elongated and …. Controlling grass inflorescence, Goh, L., Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onward Hao! A grass inflorescence and flower development of … a unit of grass inflorescence has... Or more florets a trehalose metabolic enzyme controls inflorescence architecture and hence seed.! Useful pioneer that can occur in many angiosperms without causing apparent confusion STALK1/LAX PANICLE1 ( )... W., Cunniff, J., Kokko, E.G Rooney, W.L., Kresovich, S. Yokoi!, Malcomber, S.T., Kellogg, E.A, W., Cunniff, J.,,... And physical interaction suggest that BARREN STALK1 is a hardy grass that can quickly colonise and protect the bud... Of the grass family lateral meristems with slightly different fates has enabled the isolation of key controlling! Complex, and inflorescence development in rice yan, L., Loukolanov, A. Ainouche., C.M diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats spikelet: spikelets borne on pedicels and attached to grass! Circle, spikelet ; p, pedicel ; g, glume ; l, lemma pa.
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