Western Flower Thrips. There are thousands of species of thrips which feed on a wide variety of plants and insects. Out-of-doors it is a pest of several field … Populations decline at higher temperatures (>30°C). The general life cycle of western flower thrips is similar to that of other species in the family Thripidae, consisting of an egg, 2 active feeding larval instars, 2 relatively quiescent pupal in stars, and the adult. Under very high magnification, you can see their unusual wings, which have sparse, very long hairs. The life cycles of thrips species are essentially similar, and under greenhouse conditions the life cycle is continuous and all stages can be found at any time. Distribution . IHD, Knoxfield, Victoria. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 84(2):219-224. This is the reverse of injury susceptibility to western flower thrips, so in areas with mixed thrips populations growers cannot rely solely on plant selection to avoid damage. At 25°C, it takes 13 days. Therefore, the higher the temperature, the shorter the interval between sprays. Make 3 consecutive applications at either 3-5 day intervals when temperatures are greater than 20 o C or at 6-12 day intervals when temperatures are less than 20 o C. WFT damage potential is due not only to its ability to directly damage greenhouse-grown crops by feeding on leaves and flowers, but also because they may vector destructive tospoviruses. Adults are usually 1 to 2 mm (3/64 to 5/64") long (1.2 to 1.4mm [3/64 to 1/16"] long for western flower thrips). Life Cycle: Females lay eggs in tender plant tissue. United States: Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, and Texas. Damage The most severe damage is caused by the laying of eggs. Eggs are inserted in leaves, bracts, and petals and hatch in about a week into larvae, which feed in flower buds or terminal foliage. Thrips are elongated, tiny insects. The tremendous growth in international agricultural trade that developed then fostered the invasiveness of western flower thrips. western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Life history. The western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] is an invasive pest insect in agriculture. Western flower thrips (WFT) is probably the most important insect pest for the cut flower industry, causing economic loss to chrysanthemums, gerberas, anthuriums, lisianthus, dahlias, roses and other crops. The female varies from yellow to dark brown, and has a more rounded abdomen. Life history and life tables of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on English cucumbers. Western Flower Thrips. Egg to adult development is completed within 12 to 22 days, depending on temperature and host plant species. Symptoms vary widely among different host plants and include leaf spots, necrotic areas, mottling and ring spots. Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis, is still one of the most destructive insect pests of commercial greenhouses feeding on a wide variety of horticultural crops. The eggs hatch in 2 to 14 days, depending on temperature. To reduce resistance, it is recommended that growers spray three times consecutively with the same insecticide. Thrips are a major problem in greenhouse horticulture. Injury to flower buds and growing points causes scarring, wilt and discoloration, presenting as distortion as the plant grows, ruining Western flower thrips, formally limited to western North America, has become virtually cosmopolitan since the 1970s. Biology, Life Cycle, and Behavior Depending on environmental conditions and nutrient levels, WFT females lay 150-300 eggs during their lifetime. The three spray strategy. WFT hosts . Egg and pupal stages are hidden. Western flower thrips are about 1 mm long, with the female larger than the male. Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, first arose as an important invasive pest of many crops during the 1970s–1980s. ... Thrips Life Cycle: The life cycle depends on the species of thrips as well as the location, host plant, and other factors. This species is a key pest in the greenhouse production of flowers and vegetables. A female lives for 30 to 45 days and can produce 150 to 300 eggs during her lifetime. Adult. The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) has spread worldwide as a result of global trade.It directly damages numerous crops in Florida as a result of adult and larval feeding activities. At 30°C the life cycle is approximately 12 days while at 20°C it is 19 days. 1997). Adult western flower thrips are minute, slender-bodied insects possessing two pairs of long, narrow wings, the margins of which are fringed with long hairs. At 20°C, development from egg to adult takes approximately 19 days. Life cycle can vary between 13 and 40 days dependent on temperature. The life cycle of chilli thrips is similar to that of other common thrips species, such as the western flower thrips. The life cycle consists of five stages: egg, larval, prepupal, pupal and adult. Western flower thrips has a short life cycle and high female fecundity, which enhances the potential to develop resistance. The length of the life cycle and life expectancy of the adults depend on temperature and food quality. They are inserted into the plant tissue with a saw-like ovipositor. Gaum WG, Giliomee JH, Pringle KL, 1994. This species of thrips is native to the Southwestern United States but has spread to other continents, including Europe, Australia (where it was identified in May 1993), and South America via transport of infested plant material. Anticipate vulnerable life stages: A majority of the damage caused by thrips is preventable, provided the grower has an understanding of the thrip life cycle. Color of adults western flower thrips varies greatly; there are light, dark, and intermediate "morphs." The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) develops in six stages: egg, two larval instars, prepupa, pupa, and finally the adult insect. Description and life cycle. Under warm conditions the life cycle is completed in 24-35 days and glasshouse thrips can breed throughout the year. 25% of the more common Wester F lower Thrip ubiquitous to California. Adult thrips overwinter in plant debris, bark, or other materials. Description and Life Cycle. First thing is to recognize that temperature is … Biological control: The predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) has been investigated for suppression of melon thrips (Castineiras et al. 300 eggs. The bodies of adult thrips can be yellow, orange, brown, or black. Eggs are inserted into young leaf, leaf stem or flower tissue singly, and the tip of one end of the egg remains visible at the surface. The Western flower thrips is one variety of thrips that can cause extensive damage on over 500 species of plants. At temperatures between 20 and 25°C, western flower thrips requires only 2–3weeks are to develop from egg to adult, but at higher temperatures it takes less than 10days. Primary economic damage is due to Western Flower Thrip’s (WFT) function as a vector for the topsoviruses tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and impatiens necrotic wilt virus (INWV). The tremendous growth in international agricultural trade that developed then fostered the invasiveness of western flower thrips. Western flower thrips , Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Thripidae, THYSANOPTERA. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, has spread until it now has a worldwide distribution, and is the primary vector of plant diseases caused by tospoviruses. Western flower thrips life cycle takes 10 days at 20°C: eggs are laid in slits made in leaves and growing points; 2 larval stages, a pre-pupal and pupal stage; pupation occurs in the soil. Like all insects, the rate that western flower thrips completes a life cycle depends on temperature. A typical scenario plays out whereby a grower sees an alarming number of thrips feeding on flowers, and after some treatment (whether biological or chemical), the thrips disappear. In contrast to most other thrips species, chilli thrips complete their entire life cycle on the plant. The male is always pale yellow and has a narrower abdomen . Joe Funderburk, UF/IFAS Entomology Specialist. DESCRIPTION. In Western Australia, populations tend to peak in spring (mid-late October) and autumn (March-May). The eggs of the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) are laid in leaves, flower petals and in the soft parts of stalks. 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